Natural factors pest control. The decisive factors in establishing plantations of strawberries are natural and economic factors. The economic conditions and the effect of distance from the disposal of plantations and to obtain the necessary labor. Climatic and soil conditions have already been discussed, it remains only to explain the preparation of the soil. Planting crops in the same place where previously grew strawberries, cleaned and not just the unflavored ground is fundamentally flawed. After the mechanical possibility of growing crops is limited, because the soil had to be prepared, otherwise the contribution of manual labor will be so large that the plantation will certainly become unprofitable. Therefore, the larger farms it is advisable to use the appropriate rotation to get the soil properly seasoned. Economic factors. One of the important conditions for the profitability of the plantation of strawberries is the location of the plantation. Strawberries are very fragile and after each equipment shall be directly delivered to customers. If the plantation is small and gives a daily harvest of up to several kilograms, then the farmer does not pay to supply daily sales to a remote location, because the delivery cost and time lost far outweighs the income generated for the fruit. If a cluster of a dozen or so farmers cultivated strawberries and daily collection of the plantation was several hundred, or more than 1000 kg, then even further away from the place selling the plantation to pay off the supply of common goods.
Best location of the plantation is near the larger cities, health centers and factories. The area within which the amount of fruit grown for processing is high, called the factory’s raw material base. Larger, kilkuhektarowe plantations do not have to count the distance from the factory, because the large collections of such plantations is always worthwhile to bring the car or car to the place of disposal. If such a center is not located too far from the factory, the factory provides the car, especially if the strawberries are already contracted. Moreover, in those areas where a higher number of cultivated strawberries are organized collection points, where the fruit can be easily delivered. Generally be assumed that the small plantations, 10-20arowe should be set up no farther than 10 miles from the outlets. Larger plantations because of the ease of fruit damage in transit should not assume more than 15 miles from the outlets. Strawberry plantations are easily weed As a prerequisite for good yields, inter alia, that it is still clean, weed control so it requires a lot of work. The second period, which accounts for a large amount of work equipment is fruit. During this period, per hectare allocated to about 8-10 workers. Therefore, when setting up large plantations in production cooperatives to select several varieties with different ripening time and short-term yields, to reduce the number of workers employed in the equipment. Finally, in establishing plantations to blow up the plant in a large area of need as a single lot of work force. If this is combined with some difficulty, you can apply such a system, that every year they are planted in LA the whole area of plantations, and XU also plows the oldest plantation. In this case, each of the four parts of the plantation is in a different age. Then you just lay crop rotation so that each year one of the boxes were prepared for plantation of strawberries. This allows for even distribution of work, which is important especially in the socialized farms, where you can organize a permanent brigade. Preparing the soil for a new plantation of strawberries before harvest. Plantation of strawberries grown in one place 4-5 years, so it is important to place it in the proper rotation. On the farm, which assume more plantations will best position the plants to restore good soil structure. Especially on soils more neglected and in need of more work as forecrop use of perennial crops of grass with leguminous plants that improve soil structure and enrich it to decay. According to Pauline recommended the following sequence of the five-year crop rotation: a field - oats with clover and timothy at full mineral fertilization, field - the same plant with the addition of 45-60 kg / ha P2O5 and K2O, the field - just like the second, 4 pole - early potatoes, which can be under 45 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus and 90 kg of potassium, and 2 weeks before planting strawberries, 20-30 tons of manure. If the soil is low phosphorus, after cutting 2letniej clover plowed field is at a 30 - 35 cm depth. Crop rotation. In the Moscow Experimental Station in the years before planting crops left to the black fallow soil for better cleaning of weeds, soil ventilation and improved water relations.
On farms, where the plantation of strawberries is assumed for the first time and it is not introduced into the crop rotation, and in home gardens, give them a position on the plant early in descending from the field and leaving the soil in good, not weed. The best is the position of the early potatoes, cabbage and other root crops in manure or well-successful rape, as well as the blend of green. Soil. Moscow Experimental Station conducted a series of experiments to determine the impact of fertilization of strawberries to achieve high yields. As a result of this experience, it was found that the increased fertility of strawberries greatest impact has the appropriate soil preparation before planting crops. The roots of strawberries reach a wide and deep, so it is imperative that the deep cultivation of soil, its emotion and ventilation create the best conditions for growth and root development. When deep tillage, especially if we do it in the summer, we have to remember to prevent the loss of water in the soil, as this would be detrimental to plant growth and development of bacteria needed in the soil. Equipment prior to the cultivation of strawberry plants should be the furthest to July 25, after which the field must be cleaned immediately and make a deep plowing. Plow plowing is done with a countersink, especially on heavier soils, so that the soil to a depth of 50 cm was moved. After plowing, use the Campbell shaft, kolczatka or weapons to subsoil compaction and to avoid desiccation of the soil. Plowing should be done at least one month prior to planting, the soil may settle. Otherwise, the ground settles after planting, and then the plant roots are exposed and can easily przemarznąć. In home gardens digs up patches manually. If the land is well cultivated, it’s strawberry pre-plant equipment to kick patches and even grab a shovel. If it is necessary to improve soil structure, it should be carried out regulówkę. The field for the plantation of strawberries should be aligned as closely as possible. Fertilization. To achieve high yields it is important not only deep tillage, but also to replenish the good before planting strawberries. Replenish the soil before planting has many advantages, because it is less laborious than when the plants grow, they can easily enter into the deeper layers of the soil, and fertilizers can be supplied in the form of easily digestible for the plants. In the introduction to the amount of fertilizer needed for the soil prior to planting in the early years can be obtained even without additional fertilization high yield, from 6-12 tons per 1 ha. Prior to planting soil to provide necessary food supply, from which the plants will use the first years after planting. These are mainly organic fertilizer, and this should be given under direct forecrop of 50 tons of manure. It was found that higher doses of manure do not give better results in the cultivation of strawberries. Manure can be replaced with green manure or peat przekompostowanym, which must be prepared as follows: 75 kg peat poured into 270 1 of water, while on the surface of the dry, mixed with azotniaku 0.70 kg, 1.11 kg superphosphate and 1.3 kg potassium salt. So mixed peat set in piles of 10 cm soil layer. Prism is should be 60 cm in height. From the top of the heap covered with 6-7 cm layer of soil. After 14 days translates into a pile and covered with soil again. After 6 weeks, ready, composted peat can be used. For too long, can not lie, because it loses its value. With 75 kg of peat (+ fertilizers) and 400 kg of soil + 270 1 of water is obtained 750 kg of compost. This amount is sufficient to replenish 50-75 m2 plantation of strawberries. Composted peat which fertilized the soil should be slightly moist and fragmented. According to the Moscow Experimental Station of the 3-5 tonnes of compost mixed with 5 q calcium superphosphate and 3 q 30-40 q can replace manure. Knight and Wallace showed that the highest yields of strawberries can be achieved when delivered to the soil prior to planting a large amount of manure. These authors also found that lack of potassium in the soil adversely affects the yield of strawberries. As a result of research conducted in 5letnich Weihenstephan amount of manure needed for a fire is 5 q. The dose may be reduced if previously the roots was the manure. Root crops do not consume it in its entirety and partially remains in the soil. Moscow Experimental Station recommends the following fertilization of the soil for strawberries: (see table on page 85). The important thing is the pH (acidity) of the soil. Strawberries go best in slightly acidic soil, and indifferent. If the soil is acidic, it’s still a year before planting strawberries wapnuje it is the appropriate dose depending on the acidity of the soil, 5-6 tons per 1 ha. Before planting the strawberries Feed pest control the soil with mineral fertilizers, especially phosphorus and potassium in an amount of 2-3 q to 1 ha.